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Urbana Champaign

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Spring 2016: ECE 574, Nanophotonics

Course Description:  The field of Nanophotonics, most literally, is the fusion between nanotechnology and photonics, and can be described as encompassing the set of devices, structures, and materials where the electronic and optical properties of a system begin to diverge strongly from the materials' bulk properties, and depend strongly on both size and geometry.  Nanophotonics is an emerging contemporary area of research with a wide range of new applications.  Understanding the optical properties of nanometer scale structures of semiconductors, metals, and composites will be crucial for future optoelectronic devices and technology designed to couple with, complement, or possibly even replace, present and future nanoelectronic devices.  Separated from any electronic components, nano-scale or subwavelength photonic structures offer new possibilities for sensing, imaging, waveguiding, and many other applications.  This course will examine the quantum mechanical interaction between light and semiconductors, metals, and composites; including cavity electrodynamics, polarition cavity condensation, sub-wavelength structures, metamaterials, plasmonics and applications.  Presentations by students are included to develop oral communication skills as well as to incorporate leading-edge research into the course.

Prerequisites: ECE455 and PHY486 or equivalent course in quantum mechanics, instructor permission.

Course Syllabus

Office Hours:

Prof. Wasserman: Thursday, 1-2pm, MNTL 2258

Will Streyer: Wednesday 5-6 pm (ECEB 3013)

Grading

Homework/Attendance: 30%

Mid-Term Exam: 15%

Quizzes (5): 10%

Final Project: 25%

Final Exam: 20%

Textbooks and Reading Assignments

No textbooks required for this course.  All exams and homeworks will be based on materials provided to students in lecture notes or available in journal papers.

Supplemental Resources:

-The Physics of Semiconductors, M. Grundmann (Springer 2006)

-Semiconductor Optics, C. Klingshirn (Springer, 2005)

-Introduction to Nanophotonics, S. V. Gaponenko (Cambridge 2010)

-Optical Processes in Semiconductors, J. Pankove (Dover 1971)         

-“Physics of Light and Optics”, Peatross and Ware, http://optics.byu.edu/textbook.aspx

-Optics, Eugene Hecht, with contributions by Alfred Zajac, (Addison-Wesley, 1987).

-John Davies, The Physics of Low-Dimensional Semiconductors, is a wonderful 1st year grad/upper level undergrad text.  He covers a lot of the concepts we have covered in class thus far.  His writing is understandable, and he does a good job working through the math.  It is not particularly advanced, but does a great job of explaining the basics clearly.  

-Ashcroft & Mermin, Solid State Physics: The classic textbook for Solid State.  good description of phonons, but light on optics (no pun intended).

-For Quantum Mechanics, I like Liboff, Introductory Quantum Mechanics, but will also refer to Griffiths or Gasiorowicz.  There are a lot of good QM books.  These are just the ones I have in my office.

-For Optoelectronics, it's hard to beat Yariv's Optical Electronics in Modern Communication, but Saleh and Teich's "Fundamentals of Photonics" and Rosencher and Vinter's "Optoelectronics" are also great texts.  You all probably also have Chuang's Optoelectronics text which is fantastic.

Homework

Homework is due at the beginning of class, generally one week after it is assigned.  All homeworks will be posted on the course website and their due dates listed on the website.  No late homework will be accepted.  In extreme circumstances, and with a letter from Health Services and/or the Emergency Dean, a homework can be dropped, but only with the expressed approval of the course instructor.

Homework will be a mix of analytical, conceptual, and numerical problems.  Students may work in groups to understand the homework problems and to work out approaches to solving them.  However, the homework turned in should represent the individual students' own work, and cannot be copied from another student.  Copied/reproduced homework constitutes a violation of the honor code, and will be treated as such. 

Analytical Problems: Solutions must be legible, and must indicate the approach taken to solve the problem, as well as each step used in the approach.  It is the students’ responsibility to make clear to the grader how the problem was solved and what the solution to the problem is.  Illegible, or poorly annotated/described solutions will receive no credit.  For clearly presented, well thought-out solutions, partial credit will be granted even if the solution is not correct.

Conceptual Problems:  Conceptual problems will ask for the student to explain in words and/or equations, a physical phenomenon or concept from the course.  Answers are expected to be in clear and concise English, and free from grammatical and typographical errors.  Students are expected to use their own words, but are free to cite from the literature, as long as all references are clearly noted.  Students may also be asked to respond to questions regarding state of the art nanophotonics concepts or research, which will require use of the literature.

Numerical problems:  Numerical problems are to be performed in Matlab.  As a UIUC student, you have free access to Matlab through the University webstore (http://webstore.illinois.edu/home/).  For those not familiar with Matlab, do not despair!  Initial numerical problems will be mathematically and conceptually simply and will give you a chance to understand the basic operation and functioning of the program.  Later numerical problems will be more complex, both conceptually and mathematically.  All numerical homework programs will be turned in electronically to both the TA and the course instructor before class starts on the HW due-date.  A basic example Matlab program is available below.  This program calculates the normal incidence reflection from a dielectric surface as a function of wavelength and plots the results.  Your program files should be named using the problem name and your initials (i.e. “DW_reflection.m”).  The first two lines of the script should have the HW, problem name, your full name, your University ID number, and a brief description of the program, as shown in the example script.    All numerical homework problems should be clearly and concisely annotated.  

Example numerical homework:

Problem 0.  Calculate the normal incidence reflection at an air/dielectric interface as a function of wavelength between 400-700nm.  The dielectric's index of refraction can be described, in this range, as n(L)=3+(0.4-L)/7, where lambda (L) is the wavelength of light, in microns. Your script should be a function which plots Reflection vs L and outputs arrays for L, n, and R.

Problem Name: Reflection.

Solution: WS_Reflection.m

Exams and Quizzes

Quizzes:  There will be approximately five 10 minute quizzes over the course of the semester.  These will be given in class and will consist of brief and straightforward questions on topics covered in recent lectures and homeworks. Quizzes will not be computationally or analytically challenging, but instead will be designed to test your conceptual understanding of the material, and more importantly, to give me feedback as to how well the class is retaining the course material.

Exams: There will be two exams for this course, one midterm and one final exam.  The midterm exam will be in class and will cover all material in the course up to the exam date.  Make-up exams will not be given.

Final Project

Each student will give an in-class presentation focused on a cutting edge research topic in nanophotonics or a numerical program (developed by the student) used for advanced simulation or calculation of a nanophotonic phenomenon.  Presentations will be 15 minutes long, including 2-3 minutes for questions following the presentation.  Presentations will be graded on technical content, oral communication and visual presentation skills, as well as the presenter’s ability to answer questions and discuss the presentation topic and its place in the larger context of nanophotonics. 

Course Calendar

January

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

18 

MLK Day

No Class

19

20 

Lecture 1: Introduction to ECE 574, course administration, expectations, and outline.

Lecture_1.pdf

21

22

Lecture 2: Light, Ray Optics, Wave Optics

Lecture_2.pdf

HW#1 Assigned

25

Lecture 3: E&M, Maxwell's Equations, Photon Optics, Electron waves

Lecture_3.pdf

26

27

Lecture 4: Atoms and Crystals, Kronig-Penney Model, Band diagrams.

Lecture_4.pdf

28

29

Lecture 5: Electrons in matter,density of states, Electrons vs Photons.

Lecture_5.pdf

HW #1 Due
HW1 solutions

Refraction_WS.m

Diffraction_WS.m

HW #2 Assigned

February

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

1

Lecture 6: Phonons (I), Classical oscillator, Monatomic Lattice, Diatomic Lattice, Dispersion relations

Lecture_6.pdf

2

3

Lecture 7: Phonons (II), Quantum harmonic oscillator, phonon statistics

Lecture_7.pdf

4

5

Lecture 8: Bulk Optical Properties of Matter, refractive index, permittivity, reflection, refraction

Lecture_8.pdf

8

Lecture 9: Absorption (I), interband direct transitions, semiclassical treatment

Lecture_9.pdf

HW #2 Due

HW2 Solutions

KP.m

HW #3 Assigned

9

10

Lecture 10: Absorption (II), Fermi's Golden Rule, Dipole Approximation, indirect transitions, Franz-Keldysh effect.

Lecture_10.pdf

11

12

No Class

 

15

Class Cancelled

16

17

Lecture 11: Absorption (III), Impurity absorption, excitons and biexitons.

Lecture_11.pdf

HW #3 Due

HW 3 Solutions

TMM.m

Quiz 1 solutions

HW #4 Assigned

18

19

Lecture 12: Emission (I), Band to band recombination, Auger recombination

Lecture_12.pdf

22

Lecture 13: Emission (II), Dipole Approximation, Rabi oscillations, Quantization of EM fields

Quiz 1.

Lecture_13.pdf

 

 

23

24

Lecture 14: Emission (III), Second quantization

Lecture_14.pdf

 

 

25

26

Lecture 15: Emission (IV), Intro to Nonlinear Optics

Lecture_15.pdf

HW #4 Due

HW4 Solutions

Absorption_WS.m

Si.txt

HW #5 Assigned

29

Lecture 16: Quasiparticles, polaritons and polarons

Lecture_16.pdf

Quiz 2 Solutions

 

 

 

 

 

March

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

29

 

 

1

2

Lecture 17: Electronic Dielectric Confinement, Quantum Wells

Lecture_17.pdf

 

 

 

3

4

Lecture 18: Electronic Dielectric Confinement, Optical Properties of QWs

Lecture_18.pdf

HW #5 Due

HW5 solutions

SP_EM_WS.m

HW #6 Assigned

7

Lecture 19: Optical Dielectric Confinement, Slabs

 

Lecture_19.pdf

 

 

8

9

Lecture 20: Electronic Dielectric Confinement, Higher dimensions

Lecture_20.pdf

10

11 

Lecture 21: Higher dimension Dielectric Optical Confinement

Lecture_21.pdf

 

 

14

Lecture 22: Scattering: Mie and Rayleigh

Lecture 22.pdf

Possible Final Presentation Topics

HW #6 Due:

HW6 solutions

Finite QW_WS.m

QWDipole_WS.m

Shooting_WS.m

 

15

16Mid-Term Exam (In Class)

 

S'15 Midterm

 

S'16 Midterm Solutions

17

18

Lecture 23: Resonant Scattering confinement, Bragg mirrors, Photonic crystals, photonic crystal defects.

Lecture 23.pdf

 

HW #7 Assigned

Final Presentation/Project Ideas

21

Spring Break

No Class

22

23

Spring Break

No Class

24

25

Spring Break

No Class

28

Lecture 24: Sub-wavelength optics, gratings (reflection and diffraction), High Index Contrast Gratings

Lecture 24.pdf

 

 

 

29 30

Lecture 25: Sub-wavelength optics, The diffraction limit, beating the diffraction limit.

Lecture 25.pdf
31  

April

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

         
   

 

 

 

1

Lecture 26: Metallic Optics, PECs, metal waveguides

Lecture 26.pdf

 

HW #7 Due:

HW7_sols

FP_WS.m

OneDSlab_WS.m

HW #8 Assigned

 

4

Lecture 27: Metallic Optics, propagating surface plasmons, plasmonic waveguides, nano-apertures and aperture arrays.

 

Lecture 27.pdf

 

5

6

Lecture 28: Metal Optics, Localized surface plasmons, nano- spheres, rods, and shells, SERS

Maier_IMI.pdf

Lecture 28.pdf

7

8

Lecture 29: Metal Optics: Designer metals and long-wavelength plasmonics.

Lecture 29.pdf

HW #8 Due

HW8_sols.pdf

Mirror_WS.m

QD_WS.m

HW #9 Assigned

11

Lecture 30: Metamaterials, negative index.

Lecture 30.pdf

 

 

12

13

Lecture 31: Metasurfaces, Transformation optics, hyperbolic metamaterials

Lecture 31.pdf

14

15

Lecture 32: Graphene and 2D Materials for Nanophotonics

Lecture_32.pdf

18

Lecture 33: Nanoscale Light Matter Interactions, Purcell Effect

Lecture 33.pdf

HW #9 Due

HW #10 Assigned

 

19

20

No Class

21

22

Lecture 34: Nanoscale Light Matter Interactions, nano-emitters and -detectors, nano-scale energy transfer.

Lecture34.pdf

 

25

Lecture 35:

Final ECE 574 Lecture!

HW #10 Due

 

 

26

27

In-Class presentations

1. Eric

2. Ashish

3. Aditi

 

 

28

29

In-Class presentations

4. Ella

5. Bora

6. Joshua

May

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

2

In-Class presentations

7. Katie

8. Saoud

9. Zihao

10. Hyejin

3

4

In-Class presentations

11. Sukrith

12. Lingling

13. Jocelyn

14. Paul

5

6