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Urbana Champaign

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Spring 2014: ECE 574, Nanophotonics

Course Description:  The field of Nanophotonics, most literally, is the fusion between nanotechnology and photonics, and can be described as encompassing the set of devices, structures, and materials where the electronic and optical properties of a system begin to diverge strongly from the materials' bulk properties, and depend strongly on both size and geometry.  Nanophotonics is an emerging contemporary area of research with a wide range of new applications.  Understanding the optical properties of nanometer scale structures of semiconductors, metals, and composites will be crucial for future optoelectronic devices and technology designed to couple with, complement, or possibly even replace, present and future nanoelectronic devices.  Separated from any electronic components, nano-scale or subwavelength photonic structures offer new possibilities for sensing, imaging, waveguiding, and many other applications.  This course will examine the quantum mechanical interaction between light and semiconductors, metals, and composites; including plasmonics, cavity electrodynamics, polarition cavity condensation, sub-wavelength structures, metamaterials, plasmonics and applications.  Presentations by students are included to develop oral communication skills as well as to incorporate leading-edge research into the course.

Prerequisites: ECE455 and PHY486 or equivalent course in quantum mechanics, instructor permission.

Course Syllabus

Office Hours:

Prof. Wasserman: Wednesday, 12-1pm, Friday 2-3pm (MNTL 1114)

Will Streyer: Thursday 4-5 pm (MNTL 3003)

Grading

Homework: 20%

Mid-Term Exams (2): 30%

Final Project: 25%

Final Exam: 25%

Textbooks and Reading Assignments

No textbooks required for this course.  All exams and homeworks will be based on materials provided to students in lecture notes or available in journal papers.

Supplemental Resources:

-The Physics of Semiconductors, M. Grundmann (Springer 2006)

-Semiconductor Optics, C. Klingshirn (Springer, 2005)

-Introduction to Nanophotonics, S. V. Gaponenko (Cambridge 2010)

-Optical Processes in Semiconductors, J. Pankove (Dover 1971)         

-“Physics of Light and Optics”, Peatross and Ware, http://optics.byu.edu/textbook.aspx

-Optics, Eugene Hecht, with contributions by Alfred Zajac, (Addison-Wesley, 1987).

-John Davies, The Physics of Low-Dimensional Semiconductors, is a wonderful 1st year grad/upper level undergrad text.  He covers a lot of the concepts we have covered in class thus far.  His writing is understandable, and he does a good job working through the math.  It is not particularly advanced, but does a great job of explaining the basics clearly.  

-Ashcroft & Mermin, Solid State Physics: The classic textbook for Solid State.  good description of phonons, but light on optics (no pun intended).

-For Quantum Mechanics, I like Liboff, Introductory Quantum Mechanics, but will also refer to Griffiths or Gasiorowicz.  There are a lot of good QM books.  These are just the ones I have in my office.

-For Optoelectronics, it's hard to beat Yariv's Optical Electronics in Modern Communication, but Saleh and Teich's "Fundamentals of Photonics" and Rosencher and Vinter's "Optoelectronics" are great texts.  You all probably also have Chuang's Optoelectronics text which is fantastic.

Homework

Homework is due at the beginning of class, one week after it is assigned.  All homework will be posted on the course website and their due dates listed on the website.  No late homework will be accepted.  In extreme circumstances, and with a letter from Health Services and/or the Emergency Dean, a homework can be dropped, but only with the expressed approval of the course instructor.

Homework will be a mix of analytical, conceptual, and numerical problems.  Students may work in groups to understand the homework problems and to work out approaches to solving them.  However, the homework turned in should represent the individual students' own work, and cannot be copied from another student.  Copied/reproduced homework constitutes a violation of the honor code, and will be treated as such. 

Analytical Problems: Solutions must be legible, and must indicate the approach taken to solve the problem, as well as each step used in the approach.  It is the students’ responsibility to make clear to the grader how the problem was solved and what the solution to the problem is.  Illegible, or poorly annotated/described solutions will receive no credit.  For clearly presented, well thought-out solutions, partial credit will be granted even if the solution is not correct.

Conceptual Problems:  Conceptual problems will ask for the student to explain in words and/or equations, a physical phenomenon or concept from the course.  Answers are expected to be in clear and concise English, and free from grammatical and typographical errors.  Students are expected to use their own words, but are free to cite from the literature, as long as all references are clearly noted.

Numerical problems:  Numerical problems are to be performed in Matlab.  As a UIUC student, you have free access to Matlab through the University webstore (http://webstore.illinois.edu/home/).  For those not familiar with Matlab, do not despair!  Initial numerical problems will be mathematically and conceptually simply and will give you a chance to understand the basic operation and functioning of the program.  Later numerical problems will be more complex, both conceptually and mathematically.  All numerical homework programs will be turned in electronically to both the TA and the course instructor before class starts on the HW due-date.  A basic example Matlab program is available below.  This program calculates the normal incidence reflection from a dielectric surface as a function of wavelength and plots the results.  Your program files should be named using the problem name and your initials (i.e. “reflection_DW.m”).  The first two lines of the script should have the HW, problem name, your full name, your University ID number, and a brief description of the program, as shown in the example script.    All numerical homework problems should be clearly and concisely annotated.  

Example numerical homework:

Problem 0.  Calculate the normal incidence reflection at an air/dielectric interface as a function of wavelength between 400-700nm.  The dielectric index of refraction can be described, in this range, as n(L)=3+(0.4-L)/7, where lambda is the wavelength of light, in microns. Your script should be a function which plots Reflection vs L and outputs arrays for L, n, and R.

Problem Name: Reflection.

Solution: Reflection_DW.m

Final Project

Each student will give an in-class presentation focused on a cutting edge research topic in nanophotonics or a numerical program (developed by the student) used for advanced simulation or calculation of a nanophotonic phenomenon.  Presentations will be 15 minutes long, including 2-3 minutes for questions following the presentation.  Presentations will be graded on technical content, oral communication and visual presentation skills, as well as the presenter’s ability to answer questions and discuss the presentation topic and its place in the larger context of nanophotonics. 

Course Calendar

January

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

20 

MLK Day

No Class

21

22 

Lecture 1: Introduction to ECE 574, course administration, expectations, and outline.

Lecture_1.pdf

23

24

Lecture 2: Light, Ray Optics, Wave Optics

Lecture_2.pdf

HW#1 Assigned

27

Lecture 3: E&M, Maxwell's Equations, Photon Optics, Electron waves

Lecture_3.pdf

28

29

Lecture 4: Atoms and Crystals, Kronig-Penney Model, Band diagrams.

Lecture_4.pdf

30

31

Lecture 5: Electrons in matter,density of states, Electrons vs Photons.

Lecture_5.pdf

HW #1 Due

HW #2 Assigned

February

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

3

Lecture 6: Phonons (I), Classical oscillator, Monatomic Lattice, Diatomic Lattice, Dispersion relations

Lecture_6.pdf

4

5

Lecture 7: Phonons (II), Quantum harmonic oscillator, phonon statistics

Lecture_7.pdf

6

7

Lecture 8: Bulk Optical Properties of Matter, refractive index, permittivity, reflection, refraction

Lecture_8.pdf

HW #2 Due

HW #3 Assigned

10

Lecture 9: Absorption (I), interband direct transitions, semiclassical treatment

Lecture_9.pdf

11

12

Lecture 10: Absorption (II), Franz-Keldysh effect, indirect transitions

Lecture_10.pdf

13

 

14

Lecture 11: Absorption (III), Impurity absorption, excitons and biexitons.

Lecture_11.pdf

HW #3 Due

HW #4 Assigned

17

Lecture 12: Emission (I), Band to band recombination, Auger recombination

Lecture_12.pdf

 

18

19

Lecture 13: Emission (II), Dipole Approximation, Rabi oscillations, Quantization of EM fields

Lecture_13.pdf

20

21

Lecture 14: Emission (III), Second quantization

Lecture_14.pdf

HW #4 Due

24

Midterm 1: In class, covering Lectures 1-14.

HW #5 Assigned

25

26

Lecture 15: Emission (IV), Intro to Nonlinear Optics

Lecture_15.pdf

 

27

28

Lecture 16: Quasiparticles, polaritons and polarons

Lecture_16.pdf

March

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

3

Lecture 17: Electronic Dielectric Confinement, Quantum Wells

Lecture_17.pdf

HW #5 Due

HW #6 Assigned

4

5

Lecture 18: Electronic Dielectric Confinement, Optical Properties of QWs

Lecture_18.pdf

6

7

Lecture 19: Optical Dielectric Confinement, Slabs

 

Lecture_19.pdf

10

Lecture 20: Electronic Dielectric Confinement, Higher dimensions

Lecture_20.pdf

Possible Final Presentation Topics

11

12

Lecture 21: Higher dimension Dielectric Optical Confinement

Lecture_21.pdf

HW #7 Assigned

13

14

Class Cancelled: Engineering Open House

 

17

Lecture 22: Scattering: Mie and Rayleigh

Lecture 22.pdf

18

19

Lecture 23: Resonant Scattering confinement, Bragg mirrors, Photonic crystals, photonic crystal defects.

Lecture 23.pdf

20

21

Lecture 24: Sub-wavelength optics, gratings (reflection and diffraction), High Index Contrast Gratings

Lecture 24.pdf

HW #8 Assigned

24

Spring Break

No Class

25

26

Spring Break

No Class

27

28

Spring Break

No Class

31

Lecture 25: Sub-wavelength optics, The diffraction limit, beating the diffraction limit.

Lecture 25.pdf
       

April

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

         
 

1

2

Lecture 26: Metallic Optics, PECs, metal waveguides

Lecture 26.pdf

3

4

Lecture 27: Metallic Optics, propagating surface plasmons, plasmonic waveguides, nano-apertures and aperture arrays.

Lecture 27.pdf

HW #9 Assigned

Maier_IMI.pdf

7

Lecture 28: Metal Optics, Localized surface plasmons, nano- spheres, rods, and shells, SERS

Lecture 28.pdf

8

9

Midterm 2: In-Class, covering Lectures 15-28.

10

11

Lecture 29: Metal Optics: Designer metals and long-wavelength plasmonics.

Lecture 29.pdf

14

Lecture 30: Metamaterials, negative index.

Lecture 30.pdf

15

16

Lecture 31: Transformation optics, hyperbolic metamaterials

Lecture 31.pdf

 

HW #10 Assigned

17

18

Lecture 32: Nanoscale Light Matter Interactions, Purcell Effect

Lecture 32.pdf

21

Lecture 33: Nanoscale Light Matter Interactions, nano-emitters and -detectors, nano-scale energy transfer.

Lecture 33.pdf

22

23

Lecture 34:

Final ECE 574 Lecture!

24

25

Final Presentations

28

Final Presentations

29

30

Final Presentations

   

May

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

     

1

2

Final Presentations

5

Final Presentations

6

7

Final Presentations

 

HW #10 Due

8

 

 

Lecture24_S14